Maternal Educational Attainment and Infant Mortality in the United States: Does the Gradient Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Nativity?
BACKGROUND: Maternal education-infant health gradients are flatter among foreign-born mothers than U.S.-born mothers; However, because common metrics of infant health are less predictive of infant mortality for some racial/ethnic and nativity groups, further study of maternal education-infant mortality gradients is necessary.
OBJECTIVE: We investigate whether maternal education–infant mortality gradients vary by race/ethnicity and nativity among infants born to mothers in the United States.
METHODS: We use data from the 1998‒2002 National Vital Statistics Birth Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data published by the National Center for Health Statistics (N = 17,520,140) to estimate logistic regression models predicting infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality by race/ethnicity and nativity.
RESULTS: The negative associations between maternal education and infant mortality are stronger for US-born mothers than foreign-born mothers. Among both groups, Non-Hispanic whites have the highest returns to education and Non-Hispanic blacks have the lowest returns. While foreign-born mothers are less likely to have an infant die than their native-born counterparts, this advantage is largest at the lowest levels of education and converges at the highest levels of education . For most racial/ethnic groups, the maternal education–infant mortality gradient is steeper during the postneonatal period than during the neonatal period.
CONCLUSIONS: The maternal education–infant mortality gradient varies substantially by the timing of infant death, race/ethnicity, and nativity.
CONTRIBUTION: This study extends the literature on nativity disparities in infant health by documenting how the maternal education-infant mortality gradient varies by nativity within racial/ethnic groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to produce these estimates.
Who is a legitimate French speaker? The Senegalese in Paris and the crossing of linguistic and social borders
Just as the distinction between ‘French’ and ‘Francophone’ has implications in French literary studies, the boundaries that position certain groups as outsiders also exist in French society at large, where just because one speaks French, one is not necessarily a legitimate French speaker. For instance, while linguistic legislation in France stipulates that one must demonstrate a certain level of language proficiency in order to be granted citizenship as a means of fostering social integration, experiences of discrimination and exclusion evoked in interviews with 24 Senegalese immigrants and French citizens of Senegalese origin call into question the link between proficiency and acceptance. Through an applied linguistics perspective, this article demonstrates that linguistic competence is often determined by more than just the ability to use a language; it depends on the ability to prove cultural legitimacy, which is directly tied to understandings of race, nationality and language ownership.
Advancing the field of human services: LGBT competencies
Ethical Standards for Human Services Professionals and Generic Human Services Professional Competencies adopted by the National Organization for Human Services do not include language or competencies specific to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. Without a specific ethical code and/or competency outlined by the field, human services practitioners do not have clear guidelines for their work with these populations. Additionally, researchers lack a way to formally measure professionals’ abilities with these populations. This leaves potential for these historically marginalized populations to continue to be in a vulnerable position. To address these needs, authors reviewed established competencies in other helping professions (ie, counseling and social work fields) relative to LGBT populations, and argue that creating LGBT specific competencies in the human services field will lead to more competent practice and support the purpose of ethical guidelines which in part is to serve as a basis for self-monitoring and improving practice. In addition, the development of these competencies would meet the goal of ethical guidelines, which serves to provide a framework for accountability. The authors also recommend developing one document focused on LGB clients as well as a stand-alone document outlining specific recommendations for working with transgender communities. Within the body of the article, the authors advocate for the adoption of specific competencies by human services professional organizations and governing bodies
Quantification and cell-to-cell variation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors
The vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) play a significant role in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from existing vasculature. Systems biology offers promising approaches to better understand angiogenesis by computational modeling the key molecular interactions in this process. Such modeling requires quantitative knowledge of cell surface density of pro-angiogenic receptors versus anti-angiogenic receptors, their regulation, and their cell-to-cell variability. Using quantitative fluorescence, we systematically characterized the endothelial surface density of VEGFRs and neuropilin-1 (NRP1). We also determined the role of VEGF in regulating the surface density of these receptors. Applying cell-by-cell analysis revealed heterogeneity in receptor surface density and VEGF tuning of this heterogeneity. Altogether, we determine inherent differences in the surface expression levels of these receptors and the role of VEGF in regulating the balance of anti-angiogenic or modulatory (VEGFR1) and pro-angiogenic (VEGFR2) receptors.
“This is civil disobedience. I’ll continue.”: the racialization of school board meeting rules
Minoritized communities throughout the world engage in spaces of educational decision-making to advocate for equity-oriented policies. In this article, we explore such advocacy at the local level in school board meetings in the United States. Specifically, we examine school board meeting rules from meetings featuring the advocacy of mainly Black community members who aimed to address inequities in a suburban school district governed by a largely white school board. Informed by the theories of community cultural wealth and whiteness as property, we used qualitative case study methods to analyze board meeting videos to understand how rules facilitate opportunities for advancing or inhibiting equity-oriented policymaking at the district level. Illustrating the racialization of school board meeting rules, our findings emphasize how community advocates enacted resistance and navigational strategies to work around rules that board members used to maintain and reify whiteness as property. We conclude with implications for enhancing opportunities for equity-oriented policymaking via school board meetings and other local educational spaces of decision-making and for future research.
Freedom to Aspire: Black Children’s Career Dreams, Perceived Aspirational Supports, and Africentric Values. Race, Ethnicity, and Education,
Black children today fight to define their own futurist beyond the myth of low aspirations—a dominant societal ideology which limits Black success to careers in professional sports and entertainment and blames Black families and communities for devaluing education. Informed by career aspirations research and qualitative methodologies, this study illuminates the career dreams and aspirations of Black children ages 8 to 14 years old enrolled in a summer reading program. Analyses of drawings and interviews from 12 focal children demonstrate how Black youth: 1) articulated career aspirations through Africentric values related to Black self-determination, collective uplift, and personal interests; 2) perceived familial and community support for career aspirations as nurturing relationships, specialized career knowledge, and academic support. The article concludes with a discussion of community-based and education-oriented strategies that honor and expand the career aspirations of Black children.
Gender, Separatist Politics and Embodied Nationalism in Cameroon
The monograph illuminates how issues of ideal womanhood shaped the Anglophone Cameroonian nationalist movement in 1960s Cameroon, a west-central African country that was at the time newly independent. Drawing upon history, political science, gender studies, and feminist epistemologies, the book introduces the concept of “embodied nationalism” to illustrate the political importance of women’s everyday behavior—the clothes they wore, the foods they cooked, whether they gossiped, and their deference to their husbands—even as they increasingly entered the formal workforce. It examines how politically elite and formally educated women, using newspaper advice columns as their platforms, connected such behavior to the cultural values and the self-determination of the Anglophone Cameroonian state, West Cameroon, as Francophone Cameroon (which dominated the larger and wealthier East Cameroon federated state) prepared to dismantle the federal structure, essentially re-colonizing its Anglophone minority. The book illustrates how political elites and formally educated urbanites implied that women’s everyday patterns of behavior and comportment might project a suitable Anglophone Cameroonian persona, locally, nationally, and internationally. In highlighting the strategies Anglophone Cameroonians used to navigate a turbulent political setting, the book provides a useful background to the long-standing Anglophone Cameroonian separatist/secessionist movement specifically and useful entrée to understanding women’s roles in separatist and secessionist projects across the world, such as in Canada (Quebec), the United States (Puerto Rico), and China (Hong Kong).
Green Grocer: Using Spatial Analysis to Identify Locations for a Mobile Food Market
Background: The Greater Pittsburgh Community Food Bank (GPCFB) developed the Green Grocer mobile food market to address limited access to fresh, affordable food options in local communities. GPCFB and researchers from the University of Pittsburgh established a partnership for Green Grocer implementation and evaluation, including application of geospatial techniques to help identify locations of stops for Green Grocer.
Objectives: We used geospatial analyses to identify locations in Allegheny County with limited food access as potential stops for the Green Grocer mobile food market.
Methods: Using census, county, city, and public health data, we conducted a spatial overlay analysis based on five key metrics: poverty/income rates, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) use, obesity rates, grocery/supermarket access, and mass transit access. We first defined our base target areas by finding the intersection of tracts with high rates of poverty, SNAP use, and obesity. To obtain our final recommended target neighborhoods, we then calculated the symmetric difference between these base target areas and areas of low grocery access and transit use.
Results: As identified from our overlay analysis, six neighborhoods became the targeted pilot sites for Green Grocer. These particular communities had higher poverty rates than Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, and Pennsylvania averages. A separate pilot evaluation was conducted after the initial sites were selected to examine additional population characteristics and to help determine any modifications to the program.
Conclusions: Geospatial overlay analysis identified key locations to help the GPCFB target allocation of fresh food and produce. When used in tandem with other programmatic information and processes, this data-driven approach was essential in the development and identification of distribution of resources.
Senegal Abroad: Linguistic Borders, Racial Formations, and Diasporic Imaginaries. Africa and the Diaspora: History, Politics, Culture
This volume explores the fascinating role of language in national, transnational, postcolonial, racial, and migrant identities. Drawing on extensive interviews with people of Senegalese heritage, Maya Angela Smith contends that they are notable in their capacity for movement and in their multifaceted approach to speech, shaping their identity as they purposefully switch between languages and structure. Offering a mix of poignant, funny, reflexive, introspective, and witty stories, Senegal Abroad blurs the lines between the utility and pleasure of language, allowing a more nuanced understanding of why and how Senegalese move.
The Color of Love: Racial Features, Stigma, and Socialization in Black Brazilian Families
The Color of Love reveals the power of racial hierarchies to infiltrate our most intimate relationships. Delving far deeper than previous sociologists have into the black Brazilian experience, Elizabeth Hordge-Freeman examines the relationship between racialization and the emotional life of a family. Based on interviews and a sixteen-month ethnography of ten working-class Brazilian families, this provocative work sheds light on how families simultaneously resist and reproduce racial hierarchies. Examining race and gender, Hordge-Freeman illustrates the privileges of whiteness by revealing how those with “blacker” features often experience material and emotional hardships. From parental ties, to sibling interactions, to extended family and romantic relationships, the chapters chart new territory by revealing the connection between proximity to whiteness and the distribution of affection within families.
Hordge-Freeman also explores how black Brazilian families, particularly mothers, rely on diverse strategies that reproduce, negotiate, and resist racism. She frames efforts to modify racial features as sometimes reflecting internalized racism, and at other times as responding to material and emotional considerations. Contextualizing their strategies within broader narratives of the African diaspora, she examines how Salvador’s inhabitants perceive the history of the slave trade itself in a city that is referred to as the “blackest” in Brazil. She argues that racial hierarchies may orchestrate family relationships in ways that reflect and reproduce racial inequality, but black Brazilian families actively negotiate these hierarchies to assert their citizenship and humanity.